Zoology Dept. Field Trip to kolleru lake.

Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in state of Andhra Pradesh and forms the largest shallow freshwater[3] lake in Asia, 15 kilometers away from the city of Eluru. Kolleru is located between Krishna and Godavari deltas.[4] Kolleru spans into two districts – Krishna and West Godavari. The lake is fed directly by water from the seasonal Budameru and Tammilerustreams, and is connected to the Krishna and Godavari irrigation systems by over 67 major and minor irrigation canals.[5] This lake is a major tourist attraction. Many birds migrate here in winter, such as Siberian crane, ibis, and painted storks. The lake was an important habitat for an estimated 20 million resident and migratory birds, including the grey or spot-billed pelican (Pelecanus philippensis). The lake was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in November 1999 under India’s Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, and designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention. The wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 308 km2.

Egrets, grey herons, painted storks and black-headed ibises gathering in thousands at Kolleru Lake, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Kolleru Lake under Ramsar Convention (allowing local communities (Here: Vaddi Community) to continue their occupation of culture fish and caught fish) covers 90,100 hectares (222,600 acres) and Kolleru Lake under Wildlife Sanctuary covers 166,000 acres (67,200 ha) [7]

Botany Dept. Field Trip to Organic Farm at Bommuluru

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manuregreen manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion plantingBiological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.[2]For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and IvermectinGenetically modified organismsnanomaterials, human sewage sludgeplant growth regulatorshormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited.[3][4] Reasons for advocation of organic farming include advantages in sustainability,[5][6] opennessself-sufficiencyautonomy/independence,[6] healthfood security, and food safety.

Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972.[7] Organic agriculture can be defined as:

an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones.[8][9][10][11]

Since 1990 the market for organic food and other products has grown rapidly, reaching $63 billion worldwide in 2012.[12]:25 This demand has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland that grew from 2001 to 2011 at a compounding rate of 8.9% per annum.[13] As of 2016, approximately 57,800,000 hectares (143,000,000 acres) worldwide were farmed organically, representing approximately 1.2 percent of total world farmland.[